Phlebology is the study of disorders in the the veins. This is usually around varicose veins (varices). These are visible extensions of veins on the surface of upper and/or the lower leg. It is caused by a weakness of the venous valves in the superficial saphenous veins. The great saphenous vein is located on the inside of the leg and carries blood from the medial malleolus upwards of the groin, the saphenous vein pulls the outer ankle over the calf towards the popliteal. The valves prevent the backflow of normal function of the blood towards the feet. If they are damaged, there is a backflow of blood and therefore to extend the stem and the side veins. A backflow from the deep veins can also arise, of which there are about 100 in each leg by defective valves in small connecting veins (perforating veins).
The backflow of blood through the damaged valve and the stasis in the leg can be determined by simple tests in practice (Doppler sonography and light reflex rheography).
The varicose veins (varicose veins) initially makes little or no discomfort. If it is not treated, however, it can cause the painful inflammation of the veins (thrombophlebitis). The lower legs and ankles can swell, brownish pigments store and painful skin lesions form (chronic venous insufficiency). Finally, a leg ulcer or „open leg“ develop (ulcus cruris) may occur. Additionally, there is an increased tendency to thrombosis.
Diseases of the stem and side veins are treated surgically. This can be done on an outpatient basis depending on the findings or on a stationary basis. The latter takes the damaged portions of saphenous veins with a probe (stripping operation). Larger side sections are removed through additional small incisions. Small side branches can be „fished out“ via minimal incisions with hooks in a cosmetically advantageous manner (mini phlebectomy). After surgery, remaining or isolated sections, emanating from perforating branches can be treated well with the foam sclerotherapy. Here foamy substance is injected that damages the vascular wall, which leads to bondage.
A special form of varicose veins are the spider veins. The veins are small and very small skin that are cosmetically disturbing, but not cause discomfort. On request they can be sclerosed with very small needles.